YES, I updated it after I did some more digging.

LET’S just SEE how many are LAWYERS for ALL the OLD LAWS that I cancelled




And our EVIL CRIMINAL HIGH-PAID LIAR MEDIA won’t even put Billy on public TELEVISION as A POLITICAL CANDIDATE proving AGAIN our elections are RIGGED.

WHAT else is sad is that there are NO NATIVE INDIGENOUS INDIANS that are promoted and/or HAVE A CHANCE or A SAY in THEIR OWN COUNTRY !


#PPC #Etransfer #Twitter

My very first speech as a Political Candidate!! I need some polishing! LOL

•Sep 16, 2019

22.6K subscribers

Here is the very first speech I’ve ever written in the context of a political campaign. I hope I did the #PPC proud! If you’re Canadian and want to contribute to my Campaign, send #Etransfer here : but remember, send another email indicating your full name, street address, city, postal code and amount donated PLEASE. IF YOU’D LIKE TO SUPPORT MY WORK ! Email or Etransfer : I see this daily ! Follow Me on #Twitter : Send me a #FriendRequest on #Facebook here :…. People’s Party of Canada Volunteers :… People’s Party of Canada Platform :… The #FoxesDen discord : Make these hashtags go viral everywhere : #BillyJoyce #CanadasRedPill #CanadianTruther #SuperRant #ImDoneNow #MTWGA #MAGA #MCGA #BernierNation #MadMax #NationBernier #PeoplesPartyOfCanada #CanadaFirst #LetMaxSpeak




Andrew Scheer

35th Speaker of the Canadian House of Commons and MP for Regina—Qu’Appelle

Andrew James Scheer PC MP is a Canadian politician serving as Member of Parliament for the riding of Regina—Qu’Appelle since 2004. He is Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Official Opposition since 2017.

Andrew Scheer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Andrew Scheer
Andrew Scheer in 2018
Leader of the Opposition
Assumed office
27 May 2017
Monarch Elizabeth II
Governor General David Johnston
Julie Payette
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
Deputy Lisa Raitt
Preceded by Rona Ambrose
Leader of the Conservative Party
Assumed office
27 May 2017
President Scott Lamb
Deputy Denis Lebel
Lisa Raitt
Preceded by Rona Ambrose (interim)
Opposition House Leader
In office
18 November 2015 – 13 September 2016
Leader Rona Ambrose
Preceded by Peter Julian
Succeeded by Candice Bergen
35th Speaker of the House of Commons
In office
2 June 2011 – 3 December 2015
Monarch Elizabeth II
Governor General David Johnston
Prime Minister Stephen Harper
Deputy Denise Savoie
Joe Comartin
Preceded by Peter Milliken
Succeeded by Geoff Regan
Deputy Speaker of the House of Commons
In office
21 November 2008 – 1 June 2011
Monarch Elizabeth II
Governor General Michaëlle Jean
David Johnston
Prime Minister Stephen Harper
Preceded by Bill Blaikie
Succeeded by Denise Savoie
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for Regina—Qu’Appelle
Assumed office
28 June 2004
Preceded by Lorne Nystrom
Personal details
Andrew James Scheer

20 May 1979 (age 40)
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

  • Canada
  • United States
Political party
Other political
Saskatchewan Party
Jill Ryan (m. 2003)
Relatives Jon Ryan (brother-in-law)
Residence Stornoway
Education University of Ottawa (BA)
University of Regina
Website Party website

Andrew James Scheer PC MP (born 20 May 1979) is a Canadian politician serving as Member of Parliament (MP) for the riding of Regina—Qu’Appelle since 2004. He has been Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Official Opposition since 2017.

Elected to the riding of Regina—Qu’Appelle at the age of 25, Scheer was re-elected in 2006, 2008, and 2011 before becoming the Speaker of the House of Commons at age 32, making him the youngest Speaker in the chamber’s history.[1][2] He held the speaker role for the entirety of the 41st Canadian Parliament. On 28 September 2016, Scheer announced his bid for the leadership of the Conservative Party, running under the slogan “Real conservative. Real leader.”[3]

Scheer has described himself as focused on economic development, fiscal restraint, and reducing inefficiencies in government.[4][5] A staunch opponent of the federal carbon tax, he has stated that he would balance the federal budget within two years of forming a government and open up the airline industry to foreign competition.[6][7][8] Scheer has been likened to former Prime Minister Stephen Harper.[9][10][11] On 27 May 2017, he was elected Leader of the Conservative Party of Canada.[12] According to Global News, “Scheer’s French is passable, but he’s not fluently bilingual.”[13]

Early life and career

Scheer was born and raised in Ottawa, Ontario, the son of Mary Gerarda Therese (Enright), a nurse, and James D. Scheer[14] (“Jim”[15]), a librarian, proofreader with the Ottawa Citizen, and Roman Catholic deacon.[16][17] Jim was born in the United States.[18] According to a 2019 Maclean’s article, Scheer’s family would have earned considerably more than the median income for most Canadian families.[19] Scheer has two sisters.[20] Part of Scheer’s family is from Romania.[21][22] Scheer spent summers during his youth with his maternal grandparents in Mississauga.[23] Scheer graduated from Immaculata High School, and later received the “Distinguished Catholic Alumni” award from it in 2012.[24]

Post-Secondary Education

In 1998, Scheer began his Bachelor of Arts studies in criminology,[25] political science, and history at the University of Ottawa,[26] from which he would ultimately graduate in 2008, receiving his BA degree four years after he was first elected to Parliament.[27] During his earlier university years, Scheer worked on several political campaigns, including the Unite the Right campaign to merge the Progressive Conservative and Reform parties and Preston Manning‘s campaign to lead the Canadian Alliance. He also worked in the correspondence department of the Office of the Leader of the Opposition under Stockwell Day.[16][28] Scheer also worked on Ottawa city councillor Karin Howard‘s youth advisory committee. In his third year of university, Scheer ran as a school trustee for the Ottawa-Carleton Catholic School Board in the 2000 Ottawa municipal elections,[29] but lost to incumbent Kathy Ablett.[30] After meeting his future wife Jill Ryan at the University of Ottawa, Scheer moved to her hometown of Regina, Saskatchewan, and continued his studies at the University of Regina, taking some courses for his BA there.[31]

Pre-MP Work

In Regina, Scheer worked as an insurance clerk, a waiter, and in the constituency office of Canadian Alliance MP Larry Spencer.[32][16] [33] In 2005, Scheer’s blog as an MP listed that he was an accredited insurance broker,[34] and in 2007 the biography section on Scheer’s MP website stated that he passed the Canadian Accredited Insurance Broker program in Saskatchewan and started his insurance industry career at Shenher Insurance in Regina.[35] While running for election in 2019 as the leader of the Conservatives, Scheer’s biography on the party website stated that he had worked as an insurance broker,[36] but upon investigation the The Globe and Mail found no evidence that he was ever properly accredited as an insurance broker.[37] Scheer responded to these claims by maintaining that he received accreditation for general insurance after leaving Shenher Insurance in Regina.[38] As of September 2019, the provincial regulator, Insurance Councils of Saskatchewan, was reviewing the matter.[39]

Dual Citizenship

Scheer has dual Canadian and American citizenship, and in August 2019 he began the process of renouncing his US citizenship, which he obtained through his American-born father.[40][41] Scheer confirmed that he has filed US tax returns and the party verified that he is registered for the draft under the U.S. Selective Service System, which is a list of individuals who can be conscripted into the armed forces in the event of a national emergency.[42] Scheer denied that he had been hiding this information, but rather stated that he had never been asked about his dual citizenship, nor about having an American-born parent, before the information was revealed by the Globe and Mail during the 2019 federal election campaign.[40][41]

Political career

First years in the House of Commons

Scheer was elected at age 25 as a Conservative candidate in the federal election of 2004, in the riding of Regina—Qu’Appelle, beating New Democratic Party MP Lorne Nystrom—the longest-serving member of the House of Commons at the time—by 861 votes.[1] Near the end of the race, Scheer accused Nystrom of being soft on child pornography.[43] He was re-elected in the federal election of 2006, once again defeating Nystrom, this time by a margin of 2,740 votes.[44]

In April 2006, during the 39th Canadian Parliament, Scheer was named as Assistant Deputy Chairman of Committees of the Whole, one of three deputy speakers and one of the youngest Members of Parliament to serve in that role in Commonwealth history. Also, he sponsored a bill that would create minimum sentences for those convicted of motor vehicle theft called Bill C-343, An Act to amend the Criminal Code (motor vehicle theft),[45]

On 21 November 2008, during the 40th Canadian Parliament, he was named Deputy Speaker of the House of Commons and Chairman of Committees of the Whole, succeeding New Democrat MP Bill Blaikie.[46]

Speaker of the House of Commons

When the Conservative Party won a majority at the federal election in 2011, Scheer’s experience as Deputy Speaker led many to consider him the front-runner to be elected Speaker of the House of Commons.[2][47] On 2 June 2011, Scheer defeated Denise Savoie, the lone opposition candidate and only woman in the sixth round of balloting. Scheer became the youngest House Speaker in Canadian history and the first speaker to represent a Saskatchewan riding.[48] Liberal MPs, who opposed Scheer’s candidacy, criticized the NDP for voting for their own party member instead of tipping the balance toward Conservative MP Lee Richardson based on the MPs’ beliefs that Scheer was “Harper’s Boy”.[49]

During his tenure, some individual opposition MPs were critical of some of his decisions. Liberal MP Irwin Cotler questioned his impartiality due to a decision over a robocall incident with Campaign Research (it was reported that Scheer was a client of the firm).[50] NDP Leader Tom Mulcair criticized him for failing to intervene with Conservative MP Paul Calandra, who failed to answer Mulcair’s questions during Question Period and instead responded with non-sequiturs about supporting Israel.[51] In addition, journalists pointed out there were similar incidents with his treatment of other opposition politicians.[52] Scheer responded by stating that previous Speakers have ruled that they have no authority over the content of what politicians say, and he is bound by that precedent.[53][54]

During the 2011 Canadian federal election voter suppression scandal, opposition politicians raised concerns over Scheer’s interventions to block questions after The Globe and Mail revealed that his riding association loaned $3,000 to Marty Burke while Burke’s campaign was under scrutiny by Elections Canada over the incident.[55]

After 2015

Scheer was re-elected in the 2015 federal election in which the Conservative government was defeated.[56] He was appointed Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons by Leader of the Official Opposition and interim Conservative party leader Rona Ambrose. He thought about running for the position of interim Party Leader but was dissuaded by fellow caucus MP Chris Warkentin, who pointed out that the interim leader cannot take the permanent position.[57] On 13 September 2016, he announced his resignation outside a party caucus meeting in Halifax in order to explore a bid for the leadership of the federal Conservative Party.[58]

In 2016, Scheer publicly voiced his support for the UK’s decision to vote in favour of Brexit during the referendum.[59] Later in 2018, Scheer tweeted, “I was pro-Brexit before it was cool.”[60]

2017 leadership election

Leadership campaign logo

On 28 September 2016, Scheer announced his bid for the leadership of the Conservative Party, and that he had the support of 32 members of the Conservative caucus.[3][61] On 27 May 2017, Scheer was elected as the second full-time leader of the Conservative Party of Canada, beating runner up Maxime Bernier and more than 12 others with 50.95% of the vote through 13 rounds.[12] Bernier later attributed his failure to the “fake conservatives” in the supply management dairy lobby and agricultural sector. In fact, Scheer garnered laughs at the annual Press Gallery dinner with this gag:[62]

Scheer’s campaign for the Conservative Party of Canada leadership was run under the slogan “Real conservative. Real leader.” He avoided advocating the social conservative issues that some of the candidates championed, saying that he wanted to “reach a broader audience of Canadians”. Positions on which he took a strong stance included scrapping the carbon tax and being “tough on crime”.[63] During his political career, Scheer has been compared to former Prime Minister Stephen Harper, and has been called “Harper with a smile”[9] or “Stephen Harper 2.0”.[10][11] Scheer is considered a Blue Tory[6] and is critical of the policies of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, having also been critical of Trudeau’s late father, former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau.[64] Scheer considered former Canadian Prime Minister John Diefenbaker and British MEP Daniel Hannan as political influences.[65] Scheer described U.S. Senators Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio as “strong conservative voices” during the 2016 Manning Center Conference.[66] Unlike other candidates, Scheer’s leadership team was focused less on headlines or eye-grabbing policy and more on data and organizing.[67]

During the Conservative leadership race, Scheer stated that he would balance the federal budget within two years of forming government, however his platform on specific reforms to accomplish this have not yet been revealed.[68]

During the race, Scheer did not personally attend the Campaign Life Coalition‘s March for Life but sent Garnett Genuis to show his support for the group and make statement on his behalf.[69] Scheer benefited from the unexpected support of Brad Trost during the leadership race. It was reported that some of Trost supporters contravened the Elections Act and party membership rules by offering incentives to vote. Dimitri Soudas, a former Stephen Harper aide, pointed out that it violated election rules and it benefited Scheer’s campaign but the ballots had been destroyed so the result stood.[70]

Scheer with his leadership team (Mark Strahl, Alain Rayes, Lisa Raitt, Chris Warkentin, and Candice Bergen) shortly after his leadership victory

Scheer was criticized by opposition politicians for removing his campaign platform after winning the Conservative leadership race.[71][72] Tory strategists suggested that the ideas proposed by Scheer during the race likely won’t be part of the Tories 2019 election platform.[73] It was later revealed in a Dairy Farmers of Canada briefing document after the 2018 Conservative Convention in Halifax that “The powers of the leader are far reaching in preventing policy from being in the party platform. DFC [Dairy Farmers of Canada] has been told by the Leader’s office that he will exercise this power, and that this policy will not be in the Conservative election platform regardless of the outcome at convention,”.[74]

The day after the election it was revealed that Hamish Marshall, Scheer’s campaign manager, was listed as an IT specialist and one of the directors of the far right news outlet The Rebel Media.[75][76][77] On 16 October 2017, The Globe and Mail asked Scheer if he knew that Marshall worked for the Rebel during the leadership campaign, he responded: “I didn’t ask Hamish about every client he had” and then ended the interview. Later, a conservative spokesperson clarified that Scheer was aware that the Rebel was one of Marshall’s many clients, but did not know the specifics.[78][79] The day after, Marshall was named Conservative campaign chair for the 43rd Canadian federal election.[80] On 21 March 2018, in an interview with Macleans, Scheer stated that Marshall and his past relationship with the Rebel should not be conflated with his selection as campaign chair.[81]

Leader of the Official Opposition

Scheer being sworn into the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada, several months after he became the Leader of the Official Opposition

After the Charlottesville, Virginia “Unite the Right” rally, Scheer denounced The Rebel Media due to its sympathetic coverage of the rally,[82] and stated that he would stop doing interviews with The Rebel Media until its “editorial directions” changed.[83] The day after Scheer stated that he would not be granting interview with the Rebel going forward in an interview with the National Post.[84]

On 4 January 2018, Scheer expelled Senator Lynn Beyak from the conservative caucus, after she refused to remove one of her letters that suggested Indigenous people want to get things for “no effort”. He also stated that “Racism will not be tolerated in the Conservative caucus or Conservative Party of Canada”.[85] Scheer said that his office was only aware of the letters on 2 January, but Garnet Angeconeb, a residential school survivor, stated that he emailed Scheer and Conservative Senate Leader Larry Smith about them on 15 September 2017, and did not get a response.[86] In response, Beyak said neither Scheer nor anyone from his office contacted her to take down a letter.[87] A senior Conservative source confirmed Beyak’s accusation.[88]

Scheer meeting UK Prime Minister Theresa May in London, March 2018

Scheer travelled to the United Kingdom in March 2018 to “lay the groundwork” for a Canada–UK trade agreement, should he become Prime Minister after the 2019 election.[89] In London, he met with Prime Minister Theresa May, foreign secretary Boris Johnson, and other UK ministers including Liam Fox and Sajid Javid.[90] Scheer’s trip faced minor criticism from The Globe and Mail and the Ottawa Citizen. The Citizen editorial commented that the trip was “undiplomatic” and “not statesmanlike”, while the Globe editorial pointed out that a Canada–UK trade agreement had already been announced last year by Prime Minister Trudeau.[91][91][92]

Toward the end of March 2018, the Opposition held a filibuster over the government’s India trip, which was intended to persuade the governing Liberals to answer questions in the House of Commons about the apparent scandal, and provide open and transparent information to the Canadian public; the filibuster lasted 21 hours costing taxpayers $50,000 per hour in overtime fees.[93][94] It was revealed that a few days before commencing the filibuster to demand information, Scheer’s Office was offered a briefing by the Privy Council Office regarding the trip. A spokesperson of Scheer’s responded to these claims by stating “Has the government offered Andrew a briefing? The answer is ‘no'”, and “This [is] fake news.”[95] A day later, Andrew Scheer called the allegation “completely false” and stated he would accept an offer if it were made to all members of parliament. It was later revealed that the Clerk of the Privy Council Michael Wernick approached Scheer’s chief of staff and Conservative MP Tony Clement to brief Scheer on any information the Privy Council may have. Clement responded that he would not confirm or deny it.[96] A couple of weeks later, Scheer accepted a briefing on the matter.[97]

After the Conservative Convention in August 2018, Scheer denied an allegation that the Dairy Farmers of Canada worked with his office to block a motion to change the party’s position on supply management after a page from the briefing book was already made public on Twitter by a Conservative delegate.[74][98]

Political positions


Scheer has proposed a tax cut for the lowest income tax bracket. This tax bracket, for income up to $47,630, would be reduced from 15 per cent to 13.75 per cent over the next four years. The CPC has stated this tax cut would save the average individual $444 a year, and a two-income couple $850 per year.[99][100][101]

Scheer has expressed support for free markets stating that he believes in “a free market where businesses profit by having the best product or service”.[102]

Scheer was a major advocate for the removal of the Canadian Wheat Board.[103] Scheer proposed a policy to mandate the inclusion of national flag decals on gas pumps to highlight “Canadian-sourced, ethically produced oil”.[7] Scheer would ban Huawei from Canada’s 5G network.[104]

Scheer has pledged to repeal the federal carbon tax in order to reduce the tax burden on individuals and businesses.[105]

Scheer talking about maternity benefits

Scheer says he wants to make maternity and parental leave less expensive for families. He has promised to make employment insurance for parental and maternity benefits tax-free.[106] He wants to introduce a tax credit to families who send their children to private schools. Scheer also proposes raising the limit on how much employment income a parent can earn each week while on leave. He has vowed to remove HST/GST from home heating bills and lower business taxes.[107][108] In February 2018 Scheer introduced a private member bill, the second of his career. Bill C-394, An Act to amend the Income Tax Act (parenting tax credit), or as he titled it the Supporting New Parents Act, would create a new tax credit intended to offset federal taxes owing on benefits received from maternity and parental leave. The parliamentary budget office found out that the credit would cost $607.6 million in lost revenue and would rise incrementally each year for the next five years.[109]

During the 2019 Canadian federal election, Scheer proposed he would legislate that corporate takeovers by foreign state-owned enterprises be subject to a national-security review.[110]


Scheer has promised to increase the federal government’s contribution to the Registered Education Savings Plan (RESP), increasing it from 20% to 30% annually up to $2,500. He added that low-income families would receive 50% on the first $500 invested instead of the current 40%.[111][112]


Scheer has described his opposition to a federally-imposed carbon tax. He has said that if he is to form government, he will act to repeal any elements of a plan to implement a carbon tax enacted by the Trudeau government.[7]

Scheer presenting his proposed Green Public Transit Tax Credit in Mississauga, September 2019

Scheer has proposed to restore the public transit tax credit, which the party says is part of its environment plan. The Green Public Transit Tax Credit, would refund transit users a 15-per-cent credit on their taxes of the cost of a metro pass or a bus pass.[113][114] Scheer has also promised to implement a Green Home Tax Credit, where home owners could claim a 20 per cent refundable tax credit for spending between $1,000 and $20,000 on energy-efficient home renovations. [115][116] The Conservative climate plan also promises a $250 million investment in a “green technology and innovation fund,” that would leverage public and private funds to help green tech companies and entrepreneurs secure capital.[117][118]

In October 2016, Scheer voted against the ratification of the Paris Agreement.[119] However, he voted to reaffirm Canadian ratification on the Paris Agreement in June 2017. Pundits argued that his June 2017 vote was used as a way to avoid accusations comparing him to U.S. President Donald Trump, who pulled the United States out of the accord, a few days earlier.[120][121][122]

Scheer told Le Soleil that he does not support a “war on cars” when supporting a tunnel between Quebec City and Levis.[123]


Scheer pledged that a Conservative government would extend the period of background checks to an individual’s entire life instead of the current system of five years.[124] He opposes a long-gun registry, opposes a proposed ban on handgun ownership, and has pledged to repeal the new regulations in the Liberal government’s Bill C-71.[125] Scheer has proposed to introduce legislation that classifies firearms, instead of giving the authority to cabinet or the RCMP.[citation needed]

Foreign policy


Scheer says he would not pursue a free trade agreement with China if he were prime minister.[104] He has criticized the Liberals for not ratifying the TTP quickly enough.[126]




Elizabeth May

Canadian politician

Elizabeth Evans May OC MP is a Canadian politician, who has served as leader of the Green Party of Canada since 2006 and Member of Parliament for Saanich—Gulf Islands since 2011.

Elizabeth May

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Elizabeth May
Emay photo.jpg

Elizabeth May, July 2014
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for Saanich—Gulf Islands
Assumed office
May 2, 2011
Preceded by Gary Lunn
Leader of the Green Party
Assumed office
August 26, 2006
Preceded by Jim Harris
Personal details
Elizabeth Evans May

June 9, 1954 (age 65)
Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.

Political party Green Party of Canada
Spouse(s) John Kidder
Residence Sidney, British Columbia, Canada
Alma mater Dalhousie University (1983)
Occupation Politician, lawyer, writer

Elizabeth Evans May OC MP (born June 9, 1954) is a Canadian politician, who has served as leader of the Green Party of Canada since 2006 and Member of Parliament for Saanich—Gulf Islands since 2011. An environmentalist, author, activist, and lawyer, May founded and served as the Executive Director of the Sierra Club of Canada from 1989 to 2006. May is currently the longest-serving leader and the longest serving leader as a female of a Canadian federal party.

Born in Hartford, Connecticut, Elizabeth May immigrated to Canada with her family as a teenager. She attended St. Francis Xavier University, graduated from Dalhousie University with a law degree in 1983, and later studied theology at the University of Ottawa. Following her graduation from Dalhousie University, May worked as an environmental lawyer in Halifax before moving to Ottawa in 1985, joining the Public Interest Advocacy Centre as the associate general council. In 1986 she was named Senior Policy Advisor to Thomas McMillan, then-Environment Minister in the Progressive Conservative Mulroney government. As senior policy advisor, May was deeply involved in the negotiation of the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer. She resigned on principle from the position in 1988 over permits for construction of a dam granted without environmental assessments, which were later determined to be illegal by a federal court.

In 2006, after building the Sierra Club into a nationally effective organization, May resigned to run for leadership of the Green Party of Canada, winning on the first ballot with 66% of the vote. On May 2, 2011, May became the first member of the Green Party of Canada to be elected as a Member of Parliament, defeating Conservative cabinet minister Gary Lunn with 46% of the vote in the Saanich–Gulf Islands riding.[a] In the Federal election on October 19, 2015, she was re-elected with 54% of the vote.

Elizabeth May has been an officer of the Order of Canada since 2005, and has been named by the United Nations as one of the leading women environmentalists worldwide.[1] She was named by fellow MPs as Parliamentarian of the Year 2012, Hardest Working MP 2013, and Best Orator 2014. In 2010 Newsweek named her as one of the world’s most influential women. May has written eight books; her memoir, Who We Are – Reflections of my Life and Canada was listed as a best-seller by The Globe and Mail.

Early life and education

May was born in Hartford, Connecticut,[2][3] the daughter of Stephanie (Middleton), a sculptor, pianist, and writer, and John Middleton May, an accountant.[4] Her father was born in New York and raised in England,[5] and her mother was also a native New Yorker. She has a younger brother named Geoffrey.[2][3] Her mother was a prominent anti-nuclear activist and her father was Assistant Vice President of Aetna Life and Casualty.[3][6] The family moved to Margaree Harbour, Nova Scotia in 1972, following a summer vacation spent on Cape Breton Island. On moving to the province, the May family purchased a landlocked schooner, the Marion Elizabeth which had been used as a gift shop and restaurant since the mid 1950s. They operated this establishment from 1974 until 2002.[6]

May briefly enrolled at St. Francis Xavier University in 1974, but dropped out.[7] Returning to Margaree, May took correspondence courses in restaurant management.[7] Beginning in 1980, she attended Dalhousie Law School as a mature student, graduating in 1983.

Following law school at Dalhousie University, May worked as an associate at small law firm in Halifax.

May studied theology at Saint Paul University (affiliated college of University of Ottawa).[8]

Public life

May first became known in the Canadian media in the mid-1970s through her leadership as a volunteer in the grassroots movement against proposed aerial insecticide spraying on forests near her home on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. The effort prevented aerial insecticide spraying from ever occurring in Nova Scotia. Years later, she and a local group of residents went to court to prevent herbicide spraying. Winning a temporary injunction in 1982 held off the spray programme, but after two years, the case was eventually lost. In the course of the litigation, her family sacrificed their home and seventy acres of land in an adverse court ruling to Scott Paper. However, by the time the judge ruled the chemicals were safe, 2,4,5-T’s export from the U.S. had been banned.[9] The forests of Nova Scotia were spared from being the last areas in Canada to be sprayed with Agent Orange.

In 1980, May and others launched a political party to raise environmental and anti-nuclear issues dubbed “the Small Party”. The party ran 12 candidates in six provinces in the 1980 federal election. May, at the time a 25-year-old waitress, ran against the former Deputy Prime Minister, Allan J. MacEachen in Cape Breton Highlands—Canso. She placed last in a field of four candidates receiving 272 votes.[10]

In 1985, May moved to Ottawa to work with the Public Interest Advocacy Centre. She held the position of Associate General Counsel[11] representing consumer, poverty and environment groups from 1985–86.

In 1986, May became Senior Policy Advisor to then-environment minister, Thomas McMillan of the Progressive Conservatives.[9] She was instrumental in the creation of several national parks, including South Moresby. She was involved in negotiating the Montreal Protocol to protect the ozone layer, new legislation and pollution control measures. In 1988, she resigned on principle when the Minister granted permits for the Rafferty-Alameda Dams in Saskatchewan without proper environmental assessment. The permits were later struck down by a Federal Court decision that found that the permits were granted illegally.[12]

May helped found the Canadian Environmental Defence Fund with the aim of funding groups and individuals in environmental cases.[citation needed] She has worked extensively with indigenous peoples internationally, particularly in the Amazon, as well as with Canadian First Nations. She was the first volunteer Executive Director of Cultural Survival Canada from 1989–1992 and worked for the Algonquin of Barriere Lake from 1991–1992.[9] She has taught courses at Queen’s University School of Policy Studies, as well as teaching for a year at Dalhousie University to develop the programme established in her name in Women’s Health and Environment.[13][when?]

Sierra Club of Canada

In 1989, May became the founding Executive Director of the Sierra Club of Canada.[14]

During her tenure with the Sierra Club of Canada, May received several awards in recognition of her environmental leadership, including: the International Conservation Award from the Friends of Nature, the United Nations Global 500 Award in 1990, the award for Outstanding Leadership in Environmental Education by the Ontario Society for Environmental Education in 1996, and in November 2005 was made an Officer of the Order of Canada in recognition of her “decades of leadership in the Canadian environmental movement”.[15][16]

In April 2006, May announced her resignation as the Sierra Club’s executive director in order to seek the leadership of the Green Party of Canada. As one of her last major acts she participated in a poll of experts that determined that Progressive Conservative Brian Mulroney was Canada’s “greenest” Prime Minister for an award presented by Corporate Knights magazine. For her prominent role in this initiative, May took some criticism from commentators and environmentalists.[citation needed]

Upon leaving the Sierra Club, Board President Louise Comeau noted, “Elizabeth has led the Club at the national level from its infancy to the enormously effective entity it is today, she was also instrumental in supporting development of the Sierra Youth Coalition, the Atlantic Canada Chapter and other Sierra Club chapters and local grassroots groups.”[17]

Political career

Early leadership

On May 9, 2006, May entered the Green Party of Canada’s leadership race.[18]

On August 26, 2006, May won the leadership election on the first ballot. She tallied 65.3% of the votes, beating her main rival, David Chernushenko (33.3%) and Jim Fannon (0.88%). She said one of the main platforms for the next election would be to renegotiate the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). At the time of her election as leader, May said she intended to run in the riding of Cape Breton—Canso in the next federal election, although she also said she would stand in a federal byelection if one occurred prior to the next general election.[19] In the fall of 2006, May ran for election in London North Centre, finishing second to Glen Pearson of the Liberal Party. While she lost, May’s showing in this by-election was the best result, in terms of percentage, achieved by the Green Party of Canada at that time.[20][21]

In April 2007, during a speech by May to a London, Ontario United Church of Canada, she condemned Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s stance on climate change, comparing it to “a grievance worse than Neville Chamberlain‘s appeasement of the Nazis.”[22] The statement drew criticism from the Canadian Jewish Congress and opposition parties. While Opposition leader Stéphane Dion refused to respond to Harper’s request for him to distance himself from May and these remarks during Question Period, Dion did state to reporters outside Commons that May should withdraw the remarks, and that the Nazi regime is beyond any comparison.[23]

May said she was having “a lousy week” because of the federal government’s weak action plan on the environment, but stood by her comments.[22] In a Green Party of Canada press release, May stated that she was referencing a Chamberlain Nazi appeasement analogy made by journalist George Monbiot a few days earlier.[24] saying “I made reference to Mr. Monbiot’s statement to highlight the damage being done to Canada’s international reputation, something that should concern all Canadians.”[25][26]

May in 2008 with Chris Tindal.

On March 17, 2007, May announced that she would run in the Nova Scotia riding of Central Nova, in the 2008 federal election.[27] The riding was held by Conservative National Defence Minister Peter MacKay. May has explained that she chose Central Nova to avoid running against a Liberal or NDP incumbent.[28]

On April 12, 2007, Liberal Party leader Stéphane Dion announced that the Liberals would not run a candidate in Central Nova in return for the Greens not running a candidate in Dion’s safe Saint-Laurent—Cartierville riding.[29] There was criticism from prominent Green Party members of May’s failing to support all Green candidates unequivocally during the 2008 election, as she made favorable comments about Liberal leader Stéphane Dion and said that supporters in close ridings might consider voting strategically to attempt to defeat the Conservatives.[30]

May was initially excluded from the televised national leadership debate in the 2008 federal election, based on the lack of any elected Green party MPs. She argued that the TV network consortium’s initial exclusion of the Green Party of Canada was “anti-democratic” and blamed it on “the decision-making of a small group of TV network executives”.[31] Eventually May was invited to attend the televised debate.[32]

May received 32% of the vote in Central Nova in 2008 to MacKay’s 47%. Nationally the Greens received 6.8 percent of the popular vote.

Member of Parliament

In 2010, following a survey of potentially favourable electoral districts across the county, May announced her intention to run in Saanich—Gulf Islands, in British Columbia against Conservative cabinet minister Gary Lunn.[33]

On March 29, 2011 the broadcast consortium organizing the televised national leaders’ debate for the 2011 federal election announced that it would not invite May.[34][35][36][37] Despite her exclusion from the national debates, she won her riding, defeating the incumbent Gary Lunn.[38] Nationally the Greens received 4 percent of the popular vote.

May speaks at the Fair Vote Canada National Day of Action in Ottawa May 14, 2011.

In 2012, May tabled a Private member’s bill, Bill C-442, with the aim of creating a national framework to address Lyme disease. On December 16, 2014, Bill C-442 received royal assent, becoming law.[39] Bill C-442 was the first piece of Green Party legislation enacted in the history of Canada, and was passed with unanimous consent by both houses of Parliament.[40]

The bill was introduced by May in response to the rise of lyme disease across Canada, and in recognition of the findings by groups including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, who have noted that as a result of climate change Lyme disease is beginning to spread more quickly, as the number of ticks— who serve as vectors for Lyme disease– steadily increases.[41]

In December 2014, May presented a petition to the House of Commons by members of 9/11 Truth organizations asking the government to review the September 11 attacks in New York. While she personally did not agree with the petition, May defended presenting it and stated “It is an obligation of an MP to present every petition submitted to them.”[42][43] While many MPs consider it a responsibility, House of Commons rules do not require MPs to present all petitions they receive to Parliament.[42] In 2012, the NDP Foreign Affairs Critic Paul Dewar declined to present a similar petition by another 9/11 Truth group to parliament.[42]

Annually, Maclean’s Magazine organizes an awards ceremony in which MPs recognize the achievements and hard work of their colleagues. In 2012, May was voted by her colleagues in the House of Commons as Parliamentarian of the Year, in 2013 she was voted Hardest Working MP, and in 2014 she was voted Best Orator.[44][45][46]

May was the first MP to take a stand against Bill C-51, on February 3, 2015 Toronto Star National Affairs columnist Thomas Walkom noted that, “So far, the only opposition MP with enough guts to critique the content of the Conservative government’s new anti-terror bill is Green Party Leader Elizabeth May.”[47] May and fellow Green MP Bruce Hyer tabled sixty amendments during clause-by-clause considerations of Bill C-51 – all sixty amendments were rejected by the government.[48] May later stated of Bill C-51, “It’s not fixable. Stop it. Repeal it.”[49]

On April 23, 2015, May had two amendments to Bill C-46, the Pipelines Safety Act, accepted.[50] These were the first Green Party amendments to a government bill ever adopted.[50] The first amendment enabled “aboriginal governing bodies to be reimbursed for actions they take in relation to a spill”.[50] Prior to the amendment, the bill outlined that those at fault in a spill would only be liable for “costs and expenses reasonably incurred by Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province or any other person”.[50] The second amendment was related to the concept of polluter pays. The original line in the bill said that the National Energy Board “may” recover funds to compensate those affected by a spill, the Green Party amendment changed the “may” to “shall”.[50]

In October 2015, Prime Minister-designate Justin Trudeau invited May to be part of the Canadian delegation to the United Nations summit on climate change to be held in Paris, France, in late November 2015; the summit was intended to negotiate post 2020 targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and resulted in the GHGPPA. According to Maclean’s, “May, who requested and received a 30-minute meeting with Trudeau this week even as he was immersed in transition plans for swearing in a new Liberal government on Nov. 4, said his willingness to engage with opposition parties is also encouraging, suggesting a less hyper-partisan style of governing.”[51]

On March 23, 2018, May was arrested for civil contempt during a demonstration against the Kinder Morgan pipeline. Other members of the demonstration, including fellow Member of Parliament Kennedy Stewart, were also arrested concerning the same incident. They were accused of violating a court order requiring those demonstrating to stay five meters back from company work sites, when they allegedly blocked the roadway.[52] On April 9, 2018, Justice Kenneth Affleck of the British Columbia Supreme Court recommended that May and the others arrested should be charged with criminal contempt in relation to the alleged incident.[53][54][55] On April 16, 2018, it was reported that special prosecutors would be overseeing the charges against May and Stewart.[56][57] On May 14, 2018, the special prosecutor handling May’s case told Justice Affleck that the province was pursuing a criminal contempt of court prosecution against May.[58] On May 28, 2018, May pleaded guilty to criminal contempt of court and was sentenced to pay a fine of $1,500.[59][60] May has called for a doubling of Canada’s greenhouse has emission reduction targets to a 60% reduction from 2005 levels, instead of the current 30%.[61][62]


Stance on abortion

During a visit in 2006 to the Mount St. Joseph’s Convent in London, Ontario, May responded to a nun’s question about her position on abortion, saying “I don’t think a woman has a frivolous right to choose. What I don’t want is a desperate woman to die in an illegal abortion.”[63] Following initial reports of May’s statements, which did not include the full quote, prominent Canadian feminist Judy Rebick announced that she was withdrawing her previous support of May and the Green Party because of May’s questioning “the most important victory of the women’s movement of my generation”.[64] May later clarified that she had been trying to explain to the nuns how “their belief in right to life means that they should support abortion”. She explained that making abortions illegal would cause more deaths from desperate illegal abortions, as had been the case for hundreds of years previously.[63]

In a 2011 interview with the Georgia Straight, May said her position had been “massively misreported” and explained “If a woman is in a situation where she’d like to keep her child and needs support, we also want to be there to support that choice and also to ensure that as much as possible we, in our society, provide—not just for women, but for male partners—responsibility, birth-control information in order to avoid unwanted pregnancies … So, it’s a mixed and nuanced position, but there’s absolutely no wiggle room on maintaining the right of women in this country to safe and legal abortions.” She stressed that there is “no going back” on the issue, and that she is “very militant” about it.[63]

May was interviewed by a CBC videographer that was published two days prior to the start of the 2019 federal election. May stated that the Green Party would not ban elected MPs from reopening the abortion debate.[65] May’s reasoning was that despite her own personal pro-choice views, Green Party rules do not give her the power as leader to whip votes in caucus.[65] This position put the Greens in stark contrast to the Liberals and the NDP, both of which require attestations from MPs that they will consistently support the party’s stated pro-choice platform.[65] The Green Party released an official statement clarifying May’s comments, saying that candidates are prescreened to rule out anti-choice viewpoints, but that May’s initial statement regarding the leader not having the power to whip votes remains official Green Party policy.[66] May later backed away from the comments, saying that any Green MP who moved to re-open the debate would risk being removed from caucus.[67]


In November 2011, May tweeted warnings about the possible dangers of WiFi using her cellphone.[68] May’s comments that the use of WiFi might be related to the “disappearance of pollinating insects” and writing that WiFi was a “possible human carcinogen” fueled attacks over the scientific soundness of her views.[69] “It is very disturbing how quickly Wi-Fi has moved into schools as it is children who are the most vulnerable”, she wrote.[70]

In June 2013, during a Twitter exchange with May, a Green Party critic downloaded the party’s platform and found reference to the party’s support of government-subsidized homeopathy.[71] Homeopathy found its way into the platform “by accident”, May later said.[71]

In defense of Jian Ghomeshi

In October 2014, May sent out a series of tweets defending Jian Ghomeshi, who faced allegations from three women that the radio host was physically violent to them without their consent during sexual encounters.[72] “I think Jian is wonderful. Likely TMI for an old fogey like me, but his private life is none of our beeswax”, May wrote.[72] May then wrote, “I have known Jian and something at work here doesn’t make sense. Innocent until proven guilty.”[72] When one user accused her of “buying into” rape culture, she replied, “As a feminist, I do not buy into rape culture.”[73] May later stated that she regretted defending Ghomeshi, stating that she had not yet read about the allegations of physical violence in the Toronto Star and that she was still “shaken up” by the Parliament Hill shootings when she wrote the tweets.[72][73]

2015 Press Gallery Dinner speech in support of Omar Khadr

At the Parliamentary Press Gallery’s dinner in Gatineau, Quebec on May 9, 2015, May was recorded on video in front of an audience stating, “Welcome back, Omar Khadr. It matters to say it. Welcome back, Omar Khadr. You’re home”, in reference to Omar Khadr, a convicted child soldier.[74] She further said, “Omar Khadr, you’ve got more class than the whole fucking cabinet“, before being escorted off the stage by Transport Minister Lisa Raitt.[74] Early in her speech she also questioned why no-one else had mentioned the event was being held on First Nations territory, asking “What the fuck is wrong with the rest of you?”[75][76]

May later blamed her actions on fatigue and insisted she hadn’t had too much to drink.[77][78]I didn’t have a lot of wine,” May said, “but it may have hit me harder than I thought it would”.[77] When questioned if she should resign, May responded that “a lot of people have given bad press gallery speeches and have gone on to be Prime Minister or gone on to lead other aspects of their lives, time will tell.”[74] May was quick to admit that her remarks at the annual press gallery dinner in Gatineau, Quebec, were a poor attempt at comedy. However, she said they shouldn’t detract from her political track record. President of the Treasury Board Tony Clement and NDP House Leader Peter Julian said Monday afternoon that May’s apology was sufficient. “Look, she’s apologized which was appropriate and I’m going to leave the matter at that”, Clement told reporters.[74] Laura Peck, senior partner at, said, “She has apologized. She’s done the right thing, she’s apologized”, Peck said. “One mistake is forgivable, two is a pattern.” It’s more of an “inside Ottawa beltway” thing anyway, Peck added.[79]

Other senior members of the media have called into question why this speech received so much attention from the press.[80] CBC’s Michael Enright noted that the Press Gallery Dinner has long been home to rowdy behaviour by both politicians and journalists, usually attracting little or no coverage.[81] In his Sunday Edition segment, Enright even pondered, “Why the mountain of coverage, nearly all of it unsympathetic? Was it because she was appearing before a roomful of journalists? Would the story have disappeared if she had been speaking to environmentalists? Was it because she sometimes has seemed to be holier than thou? Was it because she is a woman? Whatever the reason, May was mugged by the media.”[81]

Bullying allegations

Elizabeth May faced accusations of being an abusive boss in January 2018.[82]

Personal life

May has one daughter with former partner Ian Burton, Victoria Cate May Burton, who was the Green candidate in Berthier—Maskinongé in 2015, losing to NDP incumbent Ruth Ellen Brosseau.[83]

On November 27, 2018, May announced her engagement to John Kidder, brother of actress Margot Kidder and one of the founders of the Green Party of British Columbia. Kidder had previously run as the 2011 federal Liberal candidate in Okanagan—Coquihalla and as the 2013 BC Green candidate in Fraser-Nicola.[84][85] May and Kidder married on April 22, 2019 at Christ Church Cathedral in Victoria, British Columbia.[86]

May is a practicing Anglican, and has said she is “interested, in the long term, in becoming ordained as an Anglican priest.”[87] She cites Jesus Christ as her personal hero, because “he led a revolution that was non-violent”.[65]

Honours and awards







Jagmeet Singh

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Jagmeet Singh
Jagmeet Singh at the 2nd National Bike Summit in Ottawa in 2018

Singh in 2018
Leader of the New Democratic Party
Assumed office
October 1, 2017
Deputy David Christopherson
Alexandre Boulerice
Sheri Benson
Preceded by Tom Mulcair
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for Burnaby South
Assumed office
March 17, 2019
Preceded by Kennedy Stewart
Deputy Leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party
In office
April 20, 2015 – May 16, 2017
Leader Andrea Horwath
Preceded by Marilyn Churley
Succeeded by Sara Singh
John Vanthof
Member of the Ontario Provincial Parliament
for Bramalea—Gore—Malton
In office
October 6, 2011 – October 20, 2017
Preceded by Kuldip Kular
Succeeded by Riding dissolved
Personal details
Jagmeet Singh Jimmy Dhaliwal

January 2, 1979 (age 40)
Scarborough, Ontario, Canada

Political party New Democratic
Other political
Ontario New Democratic
Gurkiran Kaur Sidhu (m. 2018)
Relatives Gurratan Singh (brother)
Residence Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada[1]
Alma mater University of Western Ontario (BSc)
York University (LLB)
Occupation Lawyer, politician

Jagmeet Singh Jimmy Dhaliwal[2] MP (born January 2, 1979), professionally known as Jagmeet Singh (/əɡˈmt sɪŋ/ jəg-MEET SING), is a Canadian lawyer and politician serving as leader of the New Democratic Party since 2017 and as the Member of Parliament (MP) for the riding of Burnaby South since 2019.[3] He was previously an Ontario New Democratic Party Member of Provincial Parliament (MPP) for Bramalea—Gore—Malton in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 2011 to 2017.[4]

Singh began his career as a criminal defence lawyer for different law firms. His political career began in 2011 where he contested the 2011 federal election in the federal riding of Bramalea—Gore—Malton which resulted in a narrow victory for Conservative opponent Bal Gosal;[5][6] he became MPP in the overlapping provincial riding later that year.[6][7] In 2015, he became deputy leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party, serving under leader Andrea Horwath until 2017. Singh announced his candidacy for the federal New Democratic Party leadership following a leadership review that resulted in a leadership election to replace Tom Mulcair. Singh was elected leader on October 1, 2017, with a first round vote of 53.8% in a field of four.

Upon his election, Singh became the first person of a visible minority group to lead a major Canadian federal political party on a permanent basis, and the second overall after the Bloc Québécois’s former interim leader Vivian Barbot.[8][9] Singh is also the first turban-wearing Sikh to sit as a provincial legislator in Ontario. He has been widely recognized in Canadian media for his fashion and style sense.[10][11] Ideologically, Singh identifies as both a progressive and a social democrat.[12] He advocates raising the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour, decriminalizing personal possession of all drugs, and supports eliminating several tax deductions available to the highest-income earners.[13][14]


Jagmeet Singh – Wikipedia

Jagmeet Singh Jimmy Dhaliwal MP (born January 2, 1979), professionally known as Jagmeet Singh (/ dʒ ə ɡ ˈ m iː t s ɪ ŋ / jəg-MEET SING), is a Canadian lawyer and politician serving as leader of the New Democratic Party since 2017 and as the Member of Parliament (MP) for the riding of Burnaby South since 2019.

Childhood & Early Life
  • Jagmeet Singh Jimmy Dhaliwal was born on January 2, 1979 in Scarborough, Ontario, Canada to Harmeet Kaur and Jagtaran Singh, who are originally from Punjab, India. He has a younger brother named Gurratan, who is also a lawyer and politician, and a sister named Manjot.

  • He lived for a year in India with his grandparents as an infant, and later spent years in Newfoundland and Labrador, before relocating with his family to Windsor, Ontario. He graduated from the Detroit Country Day School in Beverly Hills, Michigan in 1997, following which he earned a B.Sc. degree in biology from the University of Western Ontario in 2001.

  • He attended York University’s Osgoode Hall Law School from where he obtained his Bachelor of Laws degree in 2005. The following year, he was called to the Bar of the Law Society of Upper Canada.

  • He began his career as a criminal defense lawyer at the law firm Pinkofskys in the Greater Toronto Area, and later, along with his brother Gurratan, established Singh Law. As a lawyer, he offered free legal rights seminars and provided pro bono legal counsel.

Political Career
  • Jagmeet Singh decided to launch his political career after failing to draw the attention of the officials while protesting the visit of Indian trade minister Kamal Nath, who had allegedly persecuted Sikhs, to Canada.

  • Running for Member of Parliament in the 2011 federal election as the NDP candidate in the riding of Bramalea—Gore—Malton, he finished ahead of his Liberal competitor despite marginal loss to Conservative candidate.

  • In the 2011 Ontario provincial election, he defeated Liberal incumbent Kuldip Kular as the NDP candidate in the overlapping provincial riding and became the first Ontario NDP MPP to represent the Peel Region.

  • As the NDP critic for the Attorney General of Ontario and the Consumer Services, his March 2013 motion calling on the Liberal government to reduce auto insurance premiums by 15% was accepted by the legislature.

  • His motion to have the month of April recognized as Sikh Heritage Month in the province of Ontario was accepted by the legislature in December 2013. He voted against the ‘Fighting Fraud and Reducing Automobile Rates Act’ in November 2014, arguing that it would significantly reduce the rights of drivers.

  • Calling for greater police accountability, he advocated for new legislation to be drafted to strengthen Ontario’s Special Investigations Unit (SIU). In October 2015, the legislature unanimously passed his motion to end arbitrary street checks by police services in Ontario.

  • On May 15, 2017, he announced his intention to run for the leadership of his party at a campaign launch in Brampton, and won the 2017 New Democratic Party leadership election on October 1, 2017. Incidentally, a video of the way he handled a heckler accusing him of plotting to subject Canada to sharia law contributed considerably to his first ballot win with 53.8 per cent of the vote.

  • He had initially opted out of the tradition of entering the House of Commons by winning a by-election in a ‘safe seat’ and had announced his intention to run in Brampton East. However, he eventually ran in a by-election to replace Kennedy Stewart as the Member of Parliament for Burnaby South and won with 38.9 per cent of the vote on February 25, 2019.

Family & Personal Life
  • On February 22, 2018, Jagmeet Singh married fashion designer and international humanitarian worker Gurkiran Kaur Sidhu, who is the co-founder of ‘new-age’ Punjabi clothing line ‘jangiiro’.


Jagmeet Singh’s grandfather Sewa Singh Thikriwala was a freedom fighter who fought against British occupation in India.



Jagmeet Singh’s stunning first round ballot victory injected a jolt of volatility into Canada’s political landscape. Engineered with a dedicated strategy and ground-game, Singh’s campaign was marked from the outset by a disciplined and unwavering commitment to his key identity marker, “With Love and Courage.”



Early life

Ancestry and birth

On June 23, 1971, the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) announced that Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau‘s wife of four months, the former Margaret Sinclair,[14] was pregnant and due in December.[15][16] Justin Trudeau was born on Christmas Day 1971 at 9:27 pm EST at the Ottawa Civic Hospital.[17] He is the second child in Canadian history to be born to a Prime Minister in office; the first was John A. Macdonald‘s daughter Margaret Mary Theodora Macdonald (February 8, 1869 – January 28, 1933). Trudeau’s younger brothers Alexandre (Sacha) (born December 25, 1973) and Michel (October 2, 1975 – November 13, 1998) were the third and fourth.[18][19]

Three-month-old Justin Trudeau at Rideau Hall with his mother (left) and U.S. First Lady Pat Nixon, April 14, 1972

Trudeau is predominantly of Scottish and French Canadian descent. His grandfathers were businessman Charles-Émile Trudeau[20] and Scottish-born James Sinclair,[21] who served as Minister of Fisheries in the cabinet of Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent.[22] Trudeau’s maternal great-grandfather Thomas Bernard was born in Makassar[23] and immigrated to Penticton, British Columbia, in 1906 at age 15 with his family.[24] Through the Bernard family, kinsmen of the Earls of Bandon,[25][26][27] Trudeau is the 5th-great grandson of Major-General William Farquhar,[28] a leader in the founding of modern Singapore; Trudeau also has remote ethnic Malaccan[29][30] and Ono Niha[31][32][33] ancestry.

Trudeau was christened with his father’s niece Anne Rouleau-Danis as godmother and his mother’s brother-in-law Thomas Walker as godfather[34][35] at Ottawa’s Notre Dame Basilica on the afternoon of January 16, 1972, which marked his first public appearance.[36] On April 14, 1972, Trudeau’s father and mother hosted a gala at the National Arts Centre, at which visiting U.S. president Richard M. Nixon said, “I’d like to toast the future prime minister of Canada, to Justin Pierre Trudeau” to which Pierre Elliott Trudeau responded that should his son ever assume the role, he hoped he would have “the grace and skill of the president”.[37] Earlier that same day U.S. first lady Pat Nixon had come to see him in his nursery to deliver a gift, a stuffed toy Snoopy.[38][39] Nixon’s White House audio tapes later revealed Nixon referred to that visit as “wasting three days up there. That trip we needed like a hole in the head.”[40][41]


His parents publicly announced their separation on May 27, 1977,[42][43] when Trudeau was five years old, with his father having custody. There had been repeated rumours of a reconciliation in the public for many years afterwards,[44] but his mother’s attorney Michael Levine[45] filed in Toronto to the Supreme Court of Ontario for a no-fault divorce on November 16, 1983,[46] and finalized on April 2, 1984,[47] with his father publicly announcing his intention to retire as prime minister on February 29 of that year.[48] Eventually his parents came to an amicable joint-custody arrangement and learned to get along quite well. Interviewed in October 1979, his nanny Dianne Lavergne was quoted, “Justin is a mommy’s boy, so it’s not easy, but children’s hurts mend very quickly. And they’re lucky kids, anyway.”[49] Of his mother and father’s marriage, Trudeau said in 2009, “They loved each other incredibly, passionately, completely. But there was 30 years between them and my mom never was an equal partner in what encompassed my father’s life, his duty, his country.”[50] Trudeau has three half-siblings, Kyle and Alicia, from his mother’s remarriage to Fried Kemper,[51] and Sarah, from his father’s relationship with Deborah Coyne.[52]

Trudeau lived at 24 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, the official residence of Canada’s prime minister, from his birth until his father’s government was defeated in the federal election on May 22, 1979. The Trudeaus were expected to move into the residence of the Leader of the Official Opposition, Stornoway, at 541 Acacia Avenue in Rockcliffe Park, but because of flooding in the basement, prime minister Joe Clark offered them Harrington Lake, the prime minister’s official country retreat in Gatineau Park, with the expectation they would move into Stornoway at the start of July.[53] However, the repairs were not complete so Pierre Trudeau took a prolonged vacation with his sons to the Nova Scotia summer home of his friend, MP Don Johnston, and later sent his sons to stay with their maternal grandparents in North Vancouver for the rest of the summer while he slept at his friend’s Ottawa apartment. Justin and his brothers returned to Ottawa for the start of the school year, but lived only on the top floor of Stornoway while repairs continued on the bottom floor.[54] His mother purchased and moved into a new home nearby at 95 Queen Victoria Avenue in Ottawa’s New Edinburgh in September 1979.[55][56] The Trudeaus returned to the prime minister’s official residence in February 1980 after the election that returned his father to the Prime Minister’s Office.[57]

His father had intended Trudeau to begin his formal education at a French Lycée, but Trudeau’s mother convinced his father of the importance of sending their sons to a public school.[58] In the end, Trudeau was enrolled in 1976 in the French immersion program at Rockcliffe Park Public School, the same school his mother had attended for 2 years when her family relocated to Rockcliffe Park while her father served as a federal Cabinet minister.[59] He could have been dropped off by limousine, but his parents elected he take the school bus albeit with a Royal Canadian Mounted Police car following.[60][61][62][63] This was followed by one year at the private Lycée Claudel d’Ottawa.[64][65]

10-year-old Justin Trudeau touring the Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille with his father and French Prime Minister Pierre Mauroy, November 8, 1982

After his father’s retirement in June 1984, his mother remained at her New Edinburgh home while the rest of the family moved into his father’s home at 1418 Pine Avenue, Montreal known as Cormier House[66] where the following autumn he began attending the private Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, his father’s alma mater. The school had begun as a Jesuit school but was non-denominational by the time Justin matriculated.[67][68] In 2008, Trudeau said that of all his early family outings he enjoyed camping with his father the most, because “that was where our father got to be just our father – a dad in the woods”.[69] During the summers his father would send him and his brothers to Camp Ahmek, on Canoe Lake, in Algonquin Provincial Park, where he would later work in his first paid employment as a camp counselor.[65][70][71][72][73]

University and early career

Trudeau has a bachelor of arts degree in literature from McGill University and a bachelor of education degree from the University of British Columbia. In his first year at McGill, Trudeau became acquainted with his future Principal Secretary Gerald Butts, through their mutual friend, Jonathan Ablett.[74] Butts invited Trudeau to join the McGill Debating Union.[75] They bonded while driving back to Montreal after a debate tournament at Princeton University[74] in which the Princeton team included Ted Cruz, a U.S. Senator, who was a candidate for the U.S. Republican Party’s presidential nomination in 2016.[76] After graduation, Trudeau stayed in Vancouver where he became a substitute teacher at local schools and worked permanently as a French and math teacher at the private West Point Grey Academy. He became a roommate at the Douglas Lodge[77] with fellow West Point Grey Academy faculty member and friend Christopher Ingvaldson.[74][78] From 2002 to 2004, he studied engineering at the École Polytechnique de Montréal, a part of the Université de Montréal.[79] He started a master’s degree in environmental geography at McGill, but withdrew from the program to seek public office among other reasons.[80]

In August 2000, Justin Trudeau attended the Kokanee Summit in Creston, British Columbia, to raise funds in honour of his brother Michel Trudeau and other avalanche victims. After the event, an unsigned editorial in the Creston Valley Advance (a local newspaper) accused Trudeau of having groped an unnamed female reporter while at the music festival. The editorial stated Trudeau provided a “day-late” apology to the reporter, saying, “If I had known you were reporting for a national paper, I never would have been so forward”.[81][82] In 2018, Trudeau was questioned about the groping incident but said he did not remember any negative incidents from that time. His apology and later statement about the event have been described as hypocritical, while responses to the story have been described as a witch hunt or non-story.[83]

Trudeau, then 28, emerged as a prominent figure in October 2000, after delivering a eulogy at his father’s state funeral.[84][85][86] The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) received numerous calls to rebroadcast the speech after its initial transmission, and leading Quebec politician Claude Ryan described it as “perhaps … the first manifestation of a dynasty“.[87] A book issued by the CBC in 2003 included the speech in its list of significant Canadian events from the past fifty years.[88]

In 2007, Trudeau starred in the two-part CBC Television miniseries The Great War, which gave an account of Canada’s participation in the First World War. He portrayed his fifth cousin, twice removed,[89] Major Talbot Mercer Papineau, who was killed on October 30, 1917, during the Battle of Passchendaele.[90] Trudeau is one of several children of former prime ministers who have become Canadian media personalities. The others are Ben Mulroney (son of Brian Mulroney), Catherine Clark (daughter of Joe Clark), and Trudeau’s younger brother, Alexandre.[91] Ben Mulroney was a guest at Trudeau’s wedding.[92]


Trudeau and his family started the Kokanee Glacier Alpine Campaign for winter sports safety in 2000, two years after his brother Michel died in an avalanche during a ski trip.[93] In 2002, Trudeau criticized the Government of British Columbia’s decision to stop its funding for a public avalanche warning system.[94]

Left to right at a Darfur rally, 2006: Trudeau, Darfurian refugee Tragi Mustafa, one of the event organisers, and Senator Roméo Dallaire

Trudeau chaired the Katimavik youth program, a project started by longtime family friend Jacques Hébert, from 2002 to 2006.[95][96]

In 2002–03, Trudeau was a panelist on CBC Radio‘s Canada Reads series, where he championed The Colony of Unrequited Dreams by Wayne Johnston.[97][98] Trudeau and his brother Alexandre inaugurated the Trudeau Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Toronto in April 2004; the centre later became a part of the Munk School of Global Affairs.[99] In 2006, he hosted the Giller Prize for literature.[100][101]

In 2005, Trudeau fought against a proposed $100-million zinc mine that he argued would poison the Nahanni River, a United Nations World Heritage Site located in the Northwest Territories. He was quoted as saying, “The river is an absolutely magnificent, magical place. I’m not saying mining is wrong … but that is not the place for it. It’s just the wrong thing to be doing.”[102][103]

On September 17, 2006, Trudeau was the master of ceremonies at a Toronto rally organized by Roméo Dallaire that called for Canadian participation in resolving the Darfur crisis.[104][105][106]

Political beginnings

Trudeau supported the Liberal Party from a young age, offering his support to party leader John Turner in the 1988 federal election.[107] Two years later, he defended Canadian federalism at a student event at the Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, which he attended.[108]

Trudeau at the 2006 leadership convention

Following his father’s death, Trudeau became more involved with the Liberal Party throughout the 2000s. Along with Olympian Charmaine Crooks, he co-hosted a tribute to outgoing prime minister Jean Chrétien at the party’s 2003 leadership convention, and was appointed to chair a task force on youth renewal after the party’s defeat in the 2006 federal election.[109][110]

In October 2006, Trudeau criticized Quebec nationalism by describing political nationalism generally as an “old idea from the 19th century”, “based on a smallness of thought” and not relevant to modern Quebec. This comment was seen as a criticism of Michael Ignatieff, then a candidate in the 2006 Liberal Party leadership election, who was promoting recognition of Quebec as a nation.[111][112] Trudeau later wrote a public letter on the subject, describing the idea of Quebec nationhood as “against everything my father ever believed”.[113][114]

Trudeau announced his support for leadership candidate Gerard Kennedy shortly before the 2006 convention and introduced Kennedy during the candidates’ final speeches.[115] When Kennedy dropped off after the second ballot, Trudeau joined him in supporting the ultimate winner, Stéphane Dion.[116][117]

Rumours circulated in early 2007 that Trudeau would run in an upcoming by-election in the Montreal riding of Outremont. The Montreal newspaper La Presse reported despite Trudeau’s keenness, Liberal leader Stéphane Dion wanted Outremont for a star candidate who could help rebuild the Liberal Party. Instead, Trudeau announced that he would seek the Liberal nomination in the nearby riding of Papineau for the next general election.[118][119][120] The riding, which had once been held for 26 years by André Ouellet, a senior minister under his father, had been in Liberal hands for 53 years before falling to the Bloc Québécois in 2006.[121]

Trudeau faced off against Mary Deros, a Montreal city councillor and Basilio Giordano, the publisher of a local Italian-language newspaper for the Liberal nomination. On April 29, 2007, he easily won the party’s nomination, picking up 690 votes to 350 for Deros and 220 for Giordano.[122]

Opposition, 2008–2015

Prime Minister Stephen Harper called an election for October 14, 2008, by which time Trudeau had been campaigning for a year in Papineau. On election day Trudeau narrowly defeated Bloc Québécois incumbent Vivian Barbot.[123] Following his election win, Edward Greenspon, editor-in-chief of The Globe and Mail, noted that Trudeau would “be viewed as few other rookie MPs are—as a potential future Prime Minister—and scrutinized through that lens”.[69]

2008 Trudeau promotional portrait by Jean-Marc Carisse

The Conservative Party won a minority government in the 2008 election, and Trudeau entered parliament as a member of the Official Opposition. Trudeau was the first member of the 40th Parliament of Canada to introduce a private member’s motion, in which he called for a “national voluntary service policy for young people”. The proposal won support from parliamentarians across party lines.[124] He later co-chaired the Liberal Party’s April 2009 national convention in Vancouver, and in October of the same year he was appointed as the party’s critic for multiculturalism and youth.[125]

In September 2010, he was reassigned as critic for youth, citizenship, and immigration.[126] During that time, he criticized the government’s legislation targeting human smuggling, which he argued would penalize the victims of smuggling.[127]

Trudeau sparked controversy when it was revealed that he earned $1.3 million in public speaking fees from charities and school boards across Canada, $277,000 of which Trudeau received after becoming an MP.[128][129]

He encouraged an increase of Canada’s relief efforts after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and sought more accessible immigration procedures for Haitians moving to Canada in the time of crisis. His own riding includes a significant Haitian community.[130]

Trudeau was re-elected in Papineau in the 2011 federal election, as the Liberal Party fell to third-party standing in the House of Commons with only thirty-four seats. Ignatieff resigned as party leader immediately after the election, and rumours again circulated that Trudeau could run to become his successor. On this occasion, Trudeau said, “I don’t feel I should be closing off any options … because of the history packaged into my name, a lot of people are turning to me in a way that … to be blunt, concerns me.”[131][132] Weeks after the election Toronto MP Bob Rae was selected to serve as the interim leader until the party’s leadership convention, which was later decided to be held in April 2013. Rae appointed Trudeau as the party’s critic for Post Secondary Education, Youth and Amateur Sport.[133] After his re-election, he traveled the country hosting fundraisers for charities and the Liberal Party.[134][135][136][137]

Photo of Trudeau with Pat Fiacco in a boxing ring

Trudeau wanted to take part in a charity boxing match on behalf of the cancer research fundraising event Fight for the Cure, but was having difficulty finding a Conservative opponent until Conservative senator Patrick Brazeau agreed when asked on Trudeau’s behalf by their mutual hairdresser Stefania Capovilla.[138][139] The fight on March 31, 2012, in Ottawa at the Hampton Inn was broadcast live on Sun News with commentary by Ezra Levant and Brian Lilley and Trudeau won in the third round, the result considered an upset.[138][140]

Leader of the Liberal Party

Earlier speculation

After Dion’s resignation as Liberal leader in 2008, Trudeau’s name was mentioned as a potential candidate to succeed him, with polls showing him as a favourite among Canadians for the position.[141][142]

However, he did not enter the race and Ignatieff was later acclaimed as leader in December 2008.[143] After the party’s poor showing in the 2011 election, Ignatieff resigned from the leadership and Trudeau was again seen as a potential candidate to lead the party.[144]

Following the election, Trudeau said he was undecided about seeking the leadership;[145] months later on October 12 at Wilfrid Laurier University, he announced he would not seek the post because he had a young family.[146] When interim leader Rae, who was also seen as a frontrunner, announced he would not be entering the race in June 2012, Trudeau was hit with a “tsunami” of calls from supporters to reconsider his earlier decision to not seek the leadership.[147]

Opinion polling conducted by several pollsters showed that if Trudeau were to become leader the Liberal Party would surge in support, from a distant third place to either being competitive with the Conservative Party or leading them.[148] In July 2012, Trudeau stated that he would reconsider his earlier decision to not seek the leadership and would announce his final decision at the end of the summer.[149][150]

2013 leadership election

On September 26, 2012, multiple media outlets started reporting that Trudeau would launch his leadership bid the following week.[151][152] While Trudeau was seen as a frontrunner for the leadership of the Liberal Party, he was criticized for his perceived lack of substance.[153][154] During his time as a member of parliament he spoke little on policy matters and it was not known where he stood on many issues such as the economy and foreign affairs.[155][156] Some strategists and pundits believed the leadership would be the time for Trudeau to be tested on these issues; however, there was also fear within the party that his celebrity status and large lead might deter other strong candidates from entering the leadership race.[157][158][159]

On October 2, 2012, Trudeau held a rally in Montreal to launch his bid for the leadership of the Liberal Party.[160] The core people on his campaign team were considered longtime friends, and all in their 30s and 40s. His senior advisor was Gerald Butts, the former President of WWF-Canada who had previously served as principal secretary to former Ontario premier Dalton McGuinty. Other senior aides included campaign manager Katie Telford, and policy advisors Mike McNeir and Robert Asselin, who had all worked for recent Liberal Party leaders.[161] His brother Alexandre also took a break from his documentary work to be a senior advisor on Trudeau’s campaign.[162]

During the leadership campaign three by-elections were held on November 26, 2012. The riding Calgary Centre was expected to be a three-way race between the Conservatives, Liberals and Green Party. A week before by-election day Sun Media reported on comments Trudeau had made in a 2010 interview with Télé-Québec, in which he said, “Canada isn’t doing well right now because it’s Albertans who control our community and socio-democratic agenda.” Trudeau’s campaign advisor said that the comments were being brought up now because of the close race in Calgary Centre.[163] The following day, Trudeau apologized, saying he was wrong to use “Alberta” as “shorthand” in referring to Stephen Harper’s government.[164] The Conservatives held onto Calgary Centre in the by-election by less than 1,200 votes. Liberal candidate Harvey Locke said he lost the by-election on his own and that comments made by Trudeau did not influence the outcome.[165]

Fellow leadership candidate Marc Garneau, seen as Trudeau’s main challenger in the race, criticized Trudeau for not releasing enough substantial policy positions. Garneau called on him to release more detailed policies before members and supporters begin to vote.[166] Garneau later challenged Trudeau to a one-on-one debate, and said that if Trudeau could not defend his ideas in a debate against him, he wouldn’t be able to do so against Prime Minister Harper.[167] Trudeau clashed in debates with challenger Joyce Murray, who was the only Liberal leadership candidate to speak out strongly in favour of electing the House of Commons with a system of proportional representation. She challenged Trudeau over his support for a preferential ballot voting system.[168]

On March 13, 2013, Garneau dropped out of the leadership race, saying that polling conducted by his campaign showed he would be unable to defeat Trudeau.[169][170]

With Joyce Murray the last challenger receiving significant press time, more Liberal politicians and public figures declared themselves for Trudeau. Trudeau was declared the winner of the leadership election on April 14, 2013, garnering 80.1% of 30,800 votes.[171] Joyce Murray finished in second place with 10.2% points, ahead of Martha Hall Findlay’s 5.7%.[172] Trudeau had lost only five ridings, all to Murray and all in BC.[173]

Leadership, 2013–2015

Justin Trudeau delivering a speech on a doorstep in Toronto’s Little Italy, 2014[174]

Polls conducted during the leadership race showed that support for the Liberals would surge if they were led by Trudeau. Days after winning his party’s leadership a poll showed that the Liberal Party was the choice of 43 per cent of respondents. This compared to 30 per cent for the governing Conservatives and 19 per cent for the Official Opposition New Democrats.[175]

According to an October 2013 EKOS poll, Trudeau’s approval numbers improved to a 48–29 approval–disapproval; Thomas Mulcair‘s jumped to a slight lead at 50–25, while Stephen Harper’s ratings sank to 24–69.[176] A December 2013 EKOS poll showed the Liberals preferred by 32.1% of voters, the Conservatives by 26.2%, the NDP 22.9%. Likely voters, estimated by removing those who didn’t vote in 2011, moved the parties into a logjam: Liberals 29.1%, Conservatives 28.5%, NDP 27.2%.[177]

In 2013, Justin Trudeau chose to give up his seat at the funeral of Nelson Mandela, in deference to Irwin Cotler as representative of the Liberal Party of Canada, because of Cotler’s work for and with Nelson Mandela in fighting apartheid.[178]

During the leadership campaign Trudeau pledged to park all his assets, exclusive of real estate holdings, into a blind trust which is atypical for opposition MPs, including leaders. According to documents obtained by the Ottawa Citizen, he fulfilled the pledge in July 2013 when the blind trust was set up by BMO Private Banking.[179]

On January 27, 2014, Trudeau and MP Carolyn Bennett escorted Chrystia Freeland into the House of Commons, as is traditional for by-election victors.[180] Trudeau launched an internet video the week before the 2014 Liberal party convention titled “An economy that benefits us all” in which he narrates his economic platform. He said that Canada’s debt to GDP ratios have come down in recent years and now it’s time for Ottawa to “step up”.[181]

2015 federal election

Trudeau marching in the Vancouver Pride Festival, shortly after launching his election campaign

On October 19, 2015, after the longest official campaign in over a century, Trudeau led the Liberals to a decisive victory in the federal election. The Liberals won 184 of the 338 seats, with 39.5% of the popular vote, for a strong majority government;[182][183] a gain of 150 seats compared to the 2011 federal election.[182]

This was the second-best performance in the party’s history. The Liberals won mostly on the strength of a solid performance in the eastern half of the country. In addition to taking all of Atlantic Canada and Toronto,[182] they won 40 seats in Quebec—the most that the Liberals had won in that province since Trudeau’s father led them to a near-sweep of the province in 1980, and also the first time since then that the Liberals won a majority of Quebec’s seats in an election. The 150-seat gain was the biggest numerical increase for a single party since Confederation, and marked the first time that a party had rebounded from third place in the Commons to a majority government.

In addition to the appeal of his party’s platform, Trudeau’s success has been credited to his performance both on the campaign trail and televised leaders’ debates exceeding the lowered expectations created by Conservative advertisements and conservative media outlets.[184][185][186]

The Trudeau Liberals slogan during the 2015 campaign was “Real Change”

Trudeau declared victory shortly after CBC News projected that he had won a majority government. He began his speech with a reference to Wilfrid Laurier‘s “sunny ways” (French: voies ensoleillées) approach to bringing Canadians together despite their differences. According to Trudeau, Laurier “knew that politics can be a positive force, and that’s the message Canadians have sent today”.[187] Harper announced his resignation as the head of the Conservative Party that night.[188][189]

Prime Minister of Canada

Trudeau and the rest of the Cabinet were sworn in by Governor General David Johnston on November 4, 2015. He said that his first legislative priority was to lower taxes for middle-income Canadians and raise taxes for the top one per cent of income earners after parliament was reconvened on December 3, 2015.[190] Trudeau also issued a statement promising to rebuild relations with indigenous people and run an open, ethical and transparent government.[191] On November 5, 2015, during the first Liberal caucus meeting since forming a majority government, the party announced that it would reinstate the mandatory long-form census that had been scrapped in 2010, effective with the 2016 census.[192][193]

In January 2017, Canada’s Ethics Commissioner, Mary Dawson, began an investigation into Trudeau for a vacation he and his family took to Aga Khan IV‘s private island in the Bahamas.[194][195] The Ethics Commissioner’s report, released in December 2017, found that Trudeau had violated four provisions of the Conflict of Interest Act.[196] He became the first sitting prime minister to break federal conflict of interest rules.[197]

In February 2018, Trudeau was criticized when his administration invited Khalistani nationalist Jaspal Atwal to the Canadian High Commission’s dinner party in Delhi. Atwal had previously been convicted for the shooting and attempted murder of Indian Cabinet Minister Malkiat Singh Sidhu in 1986, as well as the assault on former B.C. Premier Ujjal Dosanjh in 1985. Following the dinner, the PMO rescinded the invitation, and apologized for the incident.[198][199][200][201]

Domestic policy


Trudeau has stated that he wishes to form a party that is “resolutely pro-choice” and that potential Liberal candidates in the 2015 election who are anti-abortion would not be greenlighted for the nomination if they did not agree to vote pro-choice on abortion bills.[202] This stance was in line with a resolution passed by a majority of Liberal party members at its 2012 policy convention.[202] Trudeau’s stance was criticized by conservative Catholics, with former MP Jim Karygiannis saying it will “definitely hurt the party”,[203] and Toronto cardinal Thomas Collins writing to Trudeau urging him to reverse his ruling,[204] leading Trudeau to defend the position.[205]


During the election, the Liberal Party promised to run a deficit of around $10 billion per year, but Trudeau’s Minister of Finance, Bill Morneau, announced in his first budget in March 2016 that the government would have a $29 billion deficit in 2016 and 2017.[206]

Electoral reform

During the campaign prior to the 2015 federal election, Trudeau promised to eliminate the current voting system by the next federal election.[207] Called “first-past-the-post” or “single-member plurality”,[208] this system awards the House of Commons seat in any electoral district to the candidate who received the most votes in that electoral riding, and the party with the most seats forms government.[209] Consequently, it is possible for a political party to form a majority government with around 40 percent of the popular vote across Canada.[207]

Trudeau has said that he advocates a system where the distribution of seats is more in line with the popular vote on a Canada-wide basis, to be achieved by a new type of ballot that allows voters to rank the candidates in order of preference.[210] However, Trudeau has said that he is open to proportional representation, which is more likely to produce coalition governments.[207][209]

In December 2015, the government announced that an all-party parliamentary committee would be formed in early 2016 to consider other options. During a discussion of the plan, Minister of Democratic Institutions Maryam Monsef referred to it as “an open and robust process of consultation”. However, she refused to commit to the Conservative Party’s demand for a public referendum that would allow Canadians to vote on their preferred electoral system, indicating that she does not want to “prejudice the outcome of that consultation process”.[211]

There was some controversy regarding the government’s initial plans for the Special Committee on Electoral Reform, as the Liberals announced that they would have a majority of the committee’s ten seats. Trudeau and Monsef subsequently altered their plans, ceding a majority of the seats to the opposition. Trudeau acknowledged the opposition’s concerns that “we were perhaps behaving in a way that was resembling more the previous government than the kind of approach and tone that we promised throughout the electoral campaign”, and stated they changed course to show otherwise.[212]

On February 1, 2017, the newly appointed Minister of Democratic Institutions Karina Gould announced that the government had abandoned the electoral reform project and it was no longer a priority in her mandate letter from Trudeau.[213] In the letter, Trudeau wrote that “a clear preference for a new electoral system, let alone a consensus, has not emerged” and that “without a clear preference or a clear question, a referendum would not be in Canada’s interest”.[214]

On February 10, 2017, at a townhall in Yellowknife, Trudeau admitted he had “turned his back” on the promise to reform the electoral system.[215][216]


In 2017, the Liberal government announced Canada will welcome nearly one million immigrants over the next three years. The number of migrants will climb to 310,000 in 2018, up from 300,000 in 2017. That number will rise to 330,000 in 2019 then 340,000 in 2020.[217][218][219]


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    Maxime Bernier

    Canadian politician

    Maxime Bernier PC MP is a Canadian businessman, lawyer and politician serving as the Member of Parliament for the riding of Beauce since 2006. He is the founder and current leader of the People’s Party of Canada .

    Maxime Bernier

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    Maxime Bernier
    Maxime Bernier in 2017.jpg

    Bernier in July 2017
    Leader of the People’s Party
    Assumed office
    September 14, 2018
    Preceded by Position established
    14th Minister of State for Small Business, Tourism and Agriculture
    In office
    May 18, 2011 – November 4, 2015[a]
    Prime Minister Stephen Harper
    Preceded by Rob Moore
    Succeeded by Bardish Chagger
    7th Minister of Foreign Affairs
    In office
    August 13, 2007 – May 26, 2008
    Prime Minister Stephen Harper
    Preceded by Peter MacKay
    Succeeded by David Emerson
    6th Minister of Industry
    Registrar General of Canada
    In office
    February 6, 2006 – August 13, 2007
    Prime Minister Stephen Harper
    Preceded by David Emerson
    Succeeded by Jim Prentice
    Chair of the National Defence Select Committee
    In office
    March 9, 2009 – June 20, 2011
    Preceded by Rick Casson
    Succeeded by James Bezan
    Member of the Canadian Parliament
    for Beauce
    Assumed office
    January 23, 2006
    Preceded by Claude Drouin
    Personal details
    Born January 18, 1963 (age 56)
    Saint-Georges, Quebec, Canada
    Political party People’s Party
    Other political
    Conservative (until 2018)
    Spouse(s) Catherine Letarte (m. 2019)

    Caroline Chauvin
    (m. 1991; div. 2005)
    Parents Gilles Bernier (father)
    Residence Saint-Georges, Quebec, Canada
    Education Université du Québec à Montréal (B.Com.)
    University of Ottawa (LL.B.)
    Profession Author, businessman, consultant, lawyer

    Maxime Bernier PC MP (born January 18, 1963) is a Canadian businessman, lawyer and politician serving as the Member of Parliament (MP) for the riding of Beauce since 2006. He is the founder and current leader of the People’s Party of Canada (PPC).

    Prior to entering politics, Bernier held positions in the fields of law, finance and banking. First elected to the Canadian House of Commons as a Conservative, Bernier served as Minister of Industry, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of State for Small Business and Tourism, which later became the Minister of State for Small Business and Tourism and Agriculture in the cabinet of then-Prime Minister Stephen Harper. Following the Conservatives’ defeat in the 2015 election, he served as opposition critic for Innovation, Science and Economic Development in the shadow cabinets of Rona Ambrose and Andrew Scheer, until June 12, 2018.

    Bernier ran for the Conservative Party leadership in the 2017 leadership election, and came in a close second with over 49% of the vote in the 13th round, after leading the eventual winner, Andrew Scheer, in the first 12 rounds. Fifteen months later, in August 2018, Bernier resigned from the Conservative Party to create his own party, citing disagreements with Scheer’s leadership.[1] His new party was named the People’s Party of Canada in September 2018.

    Early life and family

    Bernier was born in Saint-Georges, Quebec, the son of Doris (Rodrigue) and Gilles Bernier, a well known radio host, who represented the riding of Beauce from 1984 to 1997, first as a Progressive Conservative and then as an independent.[2][3][4] In a 2010 interview with John Geddes, Bernier said he respects his father as a Mulroney-era politician, but tries not to emulate his style.[5] Bernier has stated that his views were shaped from his upbringing in Beauce to his life experiences.[6][2] He is the second oldest child and has two sisters, Brigitte and Caroline, and a brother, Gilles Jr. In his teens, Bernier played football as a member of the Condors, the team of the Séminaire St-Georges, that won the Bol d’Or in 1980 at the Olympic Stadium.[7]

    Education and career before politics

    Bernier obtained a Bachelor of Commerce degree from the Université du Québec à Montréal, completed his law degree at the University of Ottawa and was called to the Quebec Bar in 1990, of which he is still a member. For 19 years, Bernier held positions in law, several financial and banking fields, such as working as a lawyer at McCarthy Tétrault,[8] rising up to become branch manager at the National Bank, the office of the Securities Commission of Québec as Director of Corporate and International Relations,[9] an adviser (handling fiscal reform) from 1996 to 1998 in the office of Bernard Landry—Quebec’s finance minister and Deputy Premier of Quebec at the time—and Standard Life of Canada as the Vice-President of Corporate Affairs and Communication.[9] He also served as Executive Vice-President of the Montreal Economic Institute, a Quebec free-market think tank, where he authored a book on tax reform.[7][9][10]

    Political career

    In 2005, Bernier became the Conservative Party candidate for the riding of Beauce for the 2006 federal election. Stephen Harper had asked his father to re-enter politics, and the latter advised Harper that his son should run instead of him.[11] Bernier won handily, taking 67% of the popular vote, the largest majority for a Conservative politician outside of Alberta.[12][11] His ties to the riding[13] and his support for provincial jurisdictions (which earned him an endorsement from former Social Credit party leader Fabien Roy) were factors in his win. Some political pundits believed Bernier’s ideas led to the unexpected Conservative breakthrough in Quebec during the election.[11][14]

    Minister of Industry

    Bernier was one of the higher-profile freshman MPs from Quebec, and as such, on February 6, 2006, was appointed Minister of Industry and minister responsible for Statistics Canada, and by virtue of being appointed as the Minister of Industry, he also served as the Registrar General.[15] During his time as Industry Minister, Bernier set in motion steps that led to reformation of the telecommunications industry, particularly on local phone service.[16][17][18] Professor Richard J. Schultz from McGill University lauded his attempt to deregulate the telecommunications industry, calling him “the best Industry Minister in 30 years, without challenge.”[19][20] James Cowan from Canadian Business, called Bernier’s tenure “a golden age” for Canadian business policy.[21][22]

    Minister of Foreign Affairs

    On August 14, 2007, Bernier was appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs, replacing Peter MacKay, who became the Minister of National Defence. The rumour is that appointment had to do with preventing Bernier from pushing his personal views such as opposing corporate welfare farther as industry minister.[23][24][25][26] During the beginning of his tenure, Bernier’s personality and charm received praise among foreign dignitaries.[27]

    In May 2008, it was revealed that, one month earlier, Bernier inadvertently left a confidential briefing book at the home of his girlfriend at the time, Julie Couillard.[28][29] While Prime Minister Stephen Harper originally defended Bernier,[30] he ultimately accepted his resignation on May 26, 2008, saying “It’s only this error. It’s a very serious error for any minister. The minister immediately recognized the gravity of that error.”[29] Bernier explained that the incident made him rethink his political career and that he would avoid taking government information out of his parliamentary office in future.[31]

    Recalling his tenure as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Bernier felt unsatisfied due to the Prime Minister’s Office controlling the portfolio, making it harder for him to implement his views into Canadian foreign policy.[27]


    Six days before the 2008 election, Couillard released a book which was supposed to reveal his confidential opinions such as his personal objection to Canadian involvement in the Iraq War.[32][33] The English version peaked at No. 6 on La Presses bestseller list while the French version reached No. 5. However, the book was viewed negatively by Bernier’s constituents.[34] He was reelected with 62% of votes.[5]

    In 2009, Bernier decided to start a blog and spent the next four years travelling across the country to discuss political issues.[35][36] Bernier’s speeches were criticized by Jean-Pierre Blackburn, Raymond Blanchard and Tom Mulcair,[37][38] but praised by Andrew Coyne, Warren Kinsella, and André Pratte.[38][39][40][41] He was also chair for the National Defense Select Committee.[42]

    In September 2010, after Bernier’s Quebec colleagues pushed for the federal government to invest $175 million in the Videotron Centre in Quebec City, Bernier expressed opposition to the proposed project and a feasibility study by Ernst & Young, stating that the proposal made little financial sense.[43][6] The government later decided against the investment.[44] When recalling about that decision, he revealed that his colleagues were furious at him because they wanted to use the investment to “Buy votes”.[45][46]

    It had been rumoured that Conservative Party insiders wanted Bernier to take over as leader of the Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ) party if Stephen Harper’s preferred choice, Mario Dumont, became Quebec lieutenant, and that Bernier was considering a leadership run.[47][48] In 2009, there was a movement to draft Bernier for the leadership of the ADQ. Bernier called the attention flattering, but declined to run.[49]

    Minister of State

    On May 18, 2011, Bernier was appointed as Minister of State (Small Business and Tourism),[50] a junior ministerial post.[27] Bernier did not enjoy being bound by the principal of cabinet solidarity, and disliked being named to a minor department, but accepted the role out of deference to his colleagues and to regain credibility via a return to the cabinet.[27] Bernier later said he also accepted the position because he had felt he did not accomplish enough in his career and expressed a desire to end the budget deficit.[31]

    His responsibilities were expanded with his appointment on July 15, 2013, as Minister of State (Small Business, Tourism, and Agriculture).[50] During this time, he led the Red Tape Reduction Commission, which created a rule that for every regulation added another one has to be cut.[51]

    Move to opposition

    On November 20, 2015, Bernier was appointed by interim Conservative Leader Rona Ambrose as Critic for Economic Development and Innovation.[50] He resigned on April 7, 2016 to run in the Conservative Party’s leadership election.[52]

    In March 2016, Bernier introduced a motion to require Bombardier executives to testify to the Industry Committe to explain the reasoning for the federal government to bail them out. Bernier argued that Bombardier should restructure itself rather than seek public funds. Justin Trudeau‘s Liberal government blocked Bernier’s motion.[53][54]

    At a conservative conference in March 2016, Bernier said that China has “less government and more freedom” than Canada; a video of the speech was later circulated by the Broadbent Institute‘s Press Progress.[55] Bernier said that he was referring to economic freedom, not political freedom, and said that his remarks should not be construed to suggest that he supported Chinese dictatorship.[56]

    Campaign for the Conservative leadership

    On April 7, 2016, Bernier filed his nomination to be a candidate in the 2017 Conservative Party of Canada leadership election,[52] saying that he was running to promote his views and ideas on four principles: freedom, responsibility, fairness, and respect.[57][58] After the Conservative Party decided to remove the traditional definition of marriage from their constitution, Bernier was one of few leadership contenders to march in the Toronto Pride Parade.[59] Nathan Giede of the Prince George Citizen wrote that Bernier was “the living reincarnation of all Laurier‘s good ideas and Dief the Chief‘s pan-Canadian optimism”.[60] In the Times Colonist, Bernier stated, “They can call me a fiscal conservative, they can call me a conservative who believes in freedom, they can call me reasonable libertarian, call me anything you want—call me Max, call me Maxime, call me ‘Mad Max’.”[61] Occasionally, he displayed a sense of humor which helped him gain voters’ attention.[62][63] Bernier achieved unexpectedly high levels of support,[27][35] finishing a close second in the 13th and final round of voting on May 27, 2017, taking 49.05% of the vote to Andrew Scheer‘s 50.95%.[64][65]

    Bernier with Andrew Scheer in Ottawa, several days after the Conservative leadership election concluded

    William Watson argued in the National Post that although some of Bernier’s policies were reflective of the role “rugged individualism” played in Canada’s past, and may have played a role in his loss, they could also affect Canada’s future.[66] A few days after the results, Michael Chong, another leadership candidate, argued that both his and Bernier’s campaigns represented “real change, significant change” to the party but felt they wanted the status quo.[67] Stanley Hartt, former Chief of Staff to Brian Mulroney, found Scheer’s victory not “stirring” and suggested that Scheer should have taken ideas from Bernier’s economic platform, which Hartt praised.[68]

    Post-leadership campaign

    On August 31, 2017, Bernier was reappointed critic for Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada by Andrew Scheer.[69]

    After it was revealed that the 2015 Conservative campaign team knew about sexual assault allegations against former Conservative MP Rick Dykstra, on January 31, 2018, Bernier publicly demanded answers as he was heading towards a caucus meeting into the handling of the nomination[70] as did Conservative MP Brad Trost, who tweeted in favor of Bernier statement. After the meetings, Scheer reversed his previous decision.[71]

    Bernier intended to publish a book, Doing Politics Differently: My Vision for Canada. In April 2018 he pre-released a chapter on his publisher’s website explaining why he made the abolition of Canada’s supply management system an issue during the leadership campaign.[72][73] The chapter referred to Quebec’s dairy farmer lobby as “fake Conservatives” because they opposed his abolition of the supply management policy and supported Scheer’s candidacy.[74][75] However, in deference to his Conservative colleagues who saw the chapter as an attack on the Scheer, Bernier agreed to postpone publication of the book indefinitely for the sake of party unity, while also saying that the book was not about his leadership campaign, but about important ideas.[76] He later told the Toronto Star in an email that he defended his comments and that the book would someday be published.[77]

    On June 12, 2018, Scheer dismissed Bernier from the Official Opposition shadow cabinet, saying that Bernier had violated his pledge to delay publication of the book by posting the chapter on his website on June 5, after it had been removed by from the publisher’s website. Bernier denied that he broke the pledge, saying that the published excerpts had previously been publicly released on his publisher’s website.[78] During a At Issue panel after Bernier’s demotion, Chantal Hebert was critical of Bernier decision to publish the chapter, Coyne found Bernier to be a victim of “a political setup” and Paul Wells thought Scheer was being “paranoid”.[79] On June 15, Bernier stated in an interview that he believed his stance on supply management was the real reason behind his dismissal, not his decision to post the chapter.[80]

    In a series of Twitter posts in August 2018, Bernier garnered attention for criticizing Prime Minister Trudeau’s comments about “diversity is our strength”.[81] He later tweeted that naming a park in Winnipeg after Muhammad Ali Jinnah, was an example of “extreme multiculturalism”.[82] The tweets were broadly seen as divisive and inflammatory with calls for him to be reprimanded or removed from caucus such as John Ivison;[83] However, Conservative leader Andrew Scheer stated Bernier “speaks for himself” amid calls for Bernier to be expelled from the party’s caucus.[84] Scheer later claim that he did not use identity politics to gain support; which Bernier issued a serious of tweets counter-arguing the point.[85] Others such as him Mathieu Bock-Côté,[86] Lise Ravary[87] and Neil Macdonald[88] defended his comments by writing op-eds to counter arguing critics. While, Tom Walkom,[89] Deborah Levy[90] and Andre Valiquette[91] found his critique common within mainstream Quebec. In his resignation speech, Bernier, had an issues with Scheer’s response, and later clarified that he wanted to have a conservation about “ethnic division”.[92] When asked about his tweets by Question Period, he responded by stating “Instead of always promoting the diversity in our country, why not promote what unites us. That’s the most important.”[93] Commentator Colby Cosh later wrote that Bernier had previously praised ethnic diversity, while also “objecting to its elevation to cult status.”[94]

    Formation of People’s Party of Canada

    Logo of the PPC

    On August 23, 2018, Bernier announced that he was leaving the Conservative Party with the intention of founding a new political party.[95][96] He held a press conference where he declared that the Conservative Party was “too intellectually and morally corrupt to be reformed” and was afraid to address important issues or articulate a coherent philosophy.[92][97]

    Bernier’s departure was criticized by former Conservative Prime Ministers Stephen Harper and Brian Mulroney; Harper suggested that Bernier was a sore loser,[98] while Mulroney said that Bernier’s creation of a new party would split the vote and make it more likely that Trudeau’s Liberals would win the 2019 election.[99] Conversely, Bernier’s decision was praised as courageous by columnist Christie Blatchford.[100] In a National Post op-ed, Bernier stated that his establishment of a new party aimed to reverse what he call a “public choice dynamic” in Canadian politics that leads to vote-buying and pandering by the main political parties.[101]

    On September 14, 2018, Bernier announced the creation of the People’s Party of Canada,[102] saying the party would advocate for “smart populism” which Bernier defined as policies based on principles of freedom, responsibility, fairness, and respect.[103][104] Bernier has positioned the People’s Party to the right of the Conservative Party;[105] the party has been variously described as conservative,[102] libertarian and right-wing populist,[106][107][108] and classical liberal.[109] During the 2019 election campaign, Bernier and his chief strategist, Martin Masse, positioned the People’s Party in alignment with the anti-immigrant European New Right, with Bernier calling for steep cuts to immigration to Canada and criticizing multiculturalism.[106] Bernier’s focus on issues like cutting immigration marked a change in his public profile; contrasting with Bernier’s earlier focus (while in the Conservative Party) on free-market, libertarian stances, such as telecom monopolies and deregulation.[106] During the campaign, Bernier also proposed reductions in federal income tax; called for a reduction of the federal role in healthcare and the replacement of the Canada Health Transfer; called for the replacement of the Indian Act; said he would do “nothing” to address climate change, and called for Canada to withdraw from the Paris Agreement on carbon emissions.[110] Bernier is the only federal party leader represented in the House of Commons to reject the scientific consensus on climate change.[111][112][113][114]

    Personal life

    Bernier is the father of two teenage daughters.[115][8] Since 2010, he has been in a relationship with Catherine Letarte, a National Ballet School-trained ballerina, who worked for a women’s shelter and currently runs a community centre for adults living with mental health issues.[116] Bernier and Letarte married in the summer of 2019.[117][118] Bernier has a history of quoting James M. Buchanan, Friedrich Hayek, and Henry Hazlitt and been known as “Mad Max“,[119][120] the “Bloc-buster”,[121][122] or the “Albertan from Quebec” by his Ottawa colleagues.[2][123]

    In September 2013, Bernier trained for and ran an ultramarathon across his riding to raise funds for a local food bank.[124] In 2014, Bernier participated in the Rodeo de Cochons after being challenged by a local mayor.[125][126]



  • Maxime Bernier (March 2003). Pour un taux d’imposition unique. VARIA. ISBN 9782922245882.

  • Doing Well and Doing Better: Health Services Provided to Canadian Forces Personnel with an Emphasis on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder : Report of the Standing Committee on National Defence

  • Canada’s Arctic Sovereignty: Report of the Standing Committee on National Defence

  • Doing Politics Differently: My Vision for Canada – Chapter 5 “Live or die with supply management”[127
  1. Maxime Bernier – Wikipedia

    Maxime Bernier PC MP (born January 18, 1963) is a Canadian businessman, lawyer and politician serving as the Member of Parliament (MP) for the riding of Beauce since 2006. He is the founder and current leader of the People’s Party of Canada (PPC).

  2. 1 in 4 Canadians say it’s becoming ‘more acceptable’ to be……

    Maxime Bernier Hate Crimes Quebec Secularism Bill Racism in Canada Quebec Bill 21 Quebec religious neutrality bill Trump Muslim Ban quebec niqab Trump effect Muslim hate crimes muslim hate crimes …

  3. Maxime Bernier on Twitter: “Stats on reported hate crimes…

    Stats on reported hate crimes (including graffitis) were down 13% last year. Less than 1800 for a population of 37M. About same # as fatalities in car accidents.

  4. Foreign Affairs Minister Maxime Bernier has resigned his high-profile post after he left secret cabinet documents at the home of his girlfriend, a woman with past links to organized crime.

  5. Maxime Bernier on abortion: “This issue is not settled” – We Need……

    Bernier is the latest high-profile politician in the past few weeks to outline their perspectives on the legality of abortion. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, who has never missed an opportunity to reiterate his pro-abortion stance, initiated much of the current national conversation with a fundraising letter in response to the participation of a dozen Conservative MPs in the National March for …

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Yves-François Blanchet = UN

  1. Yves-François Blanchet – Wikipediaçois_Blanchet

    Yves-François Blanchet (born April 16, 1965) is a Canadian politician serving as Leader of the Bloc Québécois since 2019. [1] He was elected to represent the riding of Drummond in the National Assembly of Quebec in the 2008 provincial election .

  2. Les opinions exprimées dans cette vidéo sont celles du candidat et de son parti politique, et ne représentent en rien les avis, opinions ou position de CIVIX, et ne peuvent être attribués à …

  3. Yves-François Blanchet – Simple English Wikipedia, the free…çois_Blanchet

    Yves-François Blanchet (born April 16, 1965) is a Canadian politician. He is the leader of the Bloc Québécois since January 2019. [1] From 2008 to 2014, he was a member of the Member of the Quebec National Assembly .

  4. Yves-François Blanchet – Accueil | Facebook

    Yves-François Blanchet, Shawinigan, secteur Grand-Mère. 7 403 mentions J’aime · 35 en parlent. Personnalité publique

  5. Les opinions exprimées dans cette vidéo sont celles du candidat et de son parti politique, et ne représentent en rien les avis, opinions ou position de CIVIX…

    Yves-François Blanchet

    1. Yves-François Blanchet – Wikipediaçois_Blanchet

      Yves-François Blanchet (born April 16, 1965) is a Canadian politician serving as Leader of the Bloc Québécois since 2019. [1] He was elected to represent the riding of Drummond in the National Assembly of Quebec in the 2008 provincial election .

    2. Les opinions exprimées dans cette vidéo sont celles du candidat et de son parti politique, et ne représentent en rien les avis, opinions ou position de CIVIX, et ne peuvent être attribués à …

    3. Yves-François Blanchet – Simple English Wikipedia, the free…çois_Blanchet

      Yves-François Blanchet (born April 16, 1965) is a Canadian politician. He is the leader of the Bloc Québécois since January 2019. [1] From 2008 to 2014, he was a member of the Member of the Quebec National Assembly .

    4. Yves-François Blanchet – Accueil | Facebook

      Yves-François Blanchet, Shawinigan, secteur Grand-Mère. 7 403 mentions J’aime · 35 en parlent. Personnalité publique

    5. Les opinions exprimées dans cette vidéo sont celles du candidat et de son parti politique, et ne représentent en rien les avis, opinions ou position de CIVIX…

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